1000 English collocations in 10 minutes a day

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Let’s begin our study of collocations by learning some common expressions about the family. Your

parents and siblings (brothers and sisters) are your immediate family – and your extended family

includes all your relatives – uncles, cousins, great-aunts, etc.

You can use a family tree to diagram the relationships among your family members. A person who is

related to you by a long series of connections can be called a distant relative.

If you’re lucky, you have a loving family or a close-knit family – these expressions refer to a family that

has good relationships, where everyone loves each other and helps each other. If you were raised in a

loving family, then you probably had a carefree childhood – that means you had nothing to worry about

when you were young.

On the other hand, a family in which the relationships are bad or unhealthy can be called a

dysfunctional family. If the children experience abuse, poverty, or problems with the law, we can say

they had a troubled childhood.

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www.espressoenglish.net 1 | P a g ewww.espressoenglish.net 2 | P a g e Introduction Thanks for buying the e-book!  =n these 50 lessons, you’re going to learn 1000+ collocations that will expand your vocabulary and help your English sound more natural. Collocations are the typical or common combinations of words we use together. Here are some simple examples:  take a picture do a picture make a picture  a quick shower a fast shower When you make mistakes with collocations, the other person will usually understand you – but your English won’t sound “natural” – because it’s different from the way a native speaker would say it. Although it’s possible to communicate successfully with incorrect collocations, using collocations correctly can help you speak more fluently. I suggest completing one lesson in this book per day, but of course you can study at your own pace. Always do the quiz after each lesson… this is essential to review and practice what you’ve learned! The answers are at the end of the book. At the end of each audio file, there’s an opportunity for you to listen to and repeat the collocations. If you’re really short on time, you can skip that part – but it’s nice for practicing your pronunciation, as well as reinforcing the phrase in your memory. As an additional exercise, I recommend creating your own example sentences with a few of the collocations from each lesson. Try to make them as “personal” as possible, as this helps you remember the expressions better. If you have any questions, doubts, comments, etc., you can send me an e-mail at [email protected] Happy studying! Shayna Oliveira EspressoEnglish.net 1000 English Collocations in 10 Minutes a Day © Shayna Oliveira 2013www.espressoenglish.net 3 | P a g e Lesson 1 – Family Let’s begin our study of collocations by learning some common expressions about the family. Your parents and siblings (brothers and sisters) are your immediate family – and your extended family includes all your relatives – uncles, cousins, great-aunts, etc. You can use a family tree to diagram the relationships among your family members. A person who is related to you by a long series of connections can be called a distant relative. =f you’re lucky, you have a loving family or a close-knit family – these expressions refer to a family that has good relationships, where everyone loves each other and helps each other. If you were raised in a loving family, then you probably had a carefree childhood – that means you had nothing to worry about when you were young. On the other hand, a family in which the relationships are bad or unhealthy can be called a dysfunctional family. If the children experience abuse, poverty, or problems with the law, we can say they had a troubled childhood. Perhaps the parents went through a bitter divorce – that means a separation in which there were bad/angry feelings between the husband and wife. =t’s also possible to have a messy divorce, with a prolonged legal battle involving lots of conflicts about the separation of the former couple’s assets (money and possessions). The decisions about the separation of assets are made in the divorce settlement. A family in which there are divorces or separations is sometimes called a broken home. Sometimes the mother and father fight over custody of the children – that refers to who has the primary responsibility of caring for the kids. A judge can grant joint custody – that means the ex-husband and ex-wife share the responsibility – or sole custody to only one parent. For example, a judge might award sole custody to the mother, and the father has to pay child support – regular payments to help with expenses for the kids. If it was a mutual divorce/separation – that means the ex-husband and ex-wife agreed to separate without fighting – then they will probably stay on good terms with each other (meaning to have a polite relationship without conflicts). If a woman gets pregnant without being married or in a relationship, then she will become a single mother. Some women in this situation choose to have an abortion, and others prefer to give the baby up for adoption. The time when the baby is planned to arrive is called the due date – you can also say the baby is due in mid-October, for example. After the woman has the baby (or gives birth to the baby), the baby is given to the adoptive parents, who will raise the child or bring up the child as if it was their own. Sometimes, when the adopted child is older, he or she tries to find their birth mother (biological mother).www.espressoenglish.net 4 | P a g e Lesson 1 Quiz Circle the best word to complete each sentence: 1. A friend of mine gave / took / went birth to her son at home with the help of a nurse. 2. A number of the kids in my classroom come from broken / damaged / hurt homes. 3. After a hostile / cruel / bitter divorce from his wife of 20 years, the actor married a woman young enough to be his daughter. 4. I see my excepted / expanded / extended family once a year, during our annual family vacation. 5. I was raised in a very joyful / loving / tender family, in which everyone helped each other. 6. I was created / grown / raised by my grandparents after my parents passed away. 7. I'm on good friends / relations / terms with all my former boyfriends. 8. John had a carefree / careful / careless childhood, growing up with happily married parents and three brothers. 9. Many women regret giving / having / taking an abortion years afterwards. 10. My aunt's going through a messy / sloppy / untidy divorce; she's paying a fortune in legal fees. 11. My husband doesn't get along with a few of my family people / individuals / members. 12. Although my salary is low, I get child assistance / provision / support from my ex-husband. 13. My sister got / had / made pregnant immediately after she got married. 14. My son is making a diagram of our family roots / tree / web for a school project. 15. My wife is pregnant with twins. They're come / due / here in February. 16. Sally was granted sole custody / guardian / keeping of the children from her first marriage. 17. Teenagers who had a distressed / troubled / worsened childhood often have behavior problems in school. 18. The celebrity wrote a book about his debilitated / defective / dysfunctional family. 19. The divorce contract / reimbursement / settlement awarded the wife $500,000. 20. There are four people in my close / immediate / neighboring family. 21. They have three biological children and two adopted / adoptive / adopting children.www.espressoenglish.net 5 | P a g e Lesson 2 – Relationships When you move to a new city, it can be hard to make friends. You’ll probably have a number of casual acquaintances – people who you know on a basic level, but with whom you don’t have a significant relationship. Over time, some of these may become good friends or close friends – these collocations refer to friends with whom you have an especially strong relationship. Do you believe in love at first sight? That’s when two people meet each other and immediately fall in love – perhaps because they have strong chemistry – this expression describes strong compatibility or connection between two possible romantic partners. Some people believe that their significant other (their boyfriend, girlfriend, husband, or wife) is their soul mate – this is a poetic expression that means that two people are destined to be together. =t’s possible for one person to have feelings for another person – this expression is an indirect way to describe romantic feelings – but if the other person doesn’t feel the same way, then the feeling is not mutual. The other person might say “he’s/she’s just not my type” – meaning that they are interested in people of a different type of personality/appearance. Ah, there’s nothing sadder than unrequited love! (Love that is not returned) Some people marry their childhood sweetheart or high school/college sweetheart – this expression refers to a boyfriend or girlfriend from your childhood, teenage, or college years. Other couples are introduced by a mutual friend – one friend that the two people have in common. When the couple is ready to make a commitment, the man proposes to the woman – he asks her to marry him. If the marriage is good, then we say the couple is happily married. Unfortunately, not all love stories have a happy ending. Sometimes a husband or wife has an affair – they have sex with a different person. We can also say that they are cheating on their husband/wife. The expression “have an affair” is typically used only for married couples, and the expression “cheating on” can be used for married couples or for boyfriends/girlfriends.www.espressoenglish.net 6 | P a g e Lesson 2 Quiz 1. The process of creating friendships is called... a) getting friends b) earning friends c) making friends 2. A "close friend" is someone... a) who lives near you b) who is similar to you c)with whom you have a strong friendship 3. When you develop romantic feelings for another person, you're... a) becoming passionate b) falling in love c) giving your heart 4. If only one of the two people has romantic feelings, we say the feeling is not... a) mutual b) returned c) together 5. A polite way to say you're not attracted to someone is: "He/she's not my..." a) kind b) style c) type 6. A man who marries a woman who he met when both were very young, has married his childhood... a) darling b) lover c) sweetheart 7. When two people get married, they make a ___________ to each other. a) commitment b) compromise c) guarantee 8. Many men try to find a creative and romantic way to __________ to their girlfriends. a) propose b) proposition c) purpose 9. A lot of marriages end when one member of the couple has an... a)affair b) experience c) intimacy 10. If you catch your significant other in bed with another person, then he/she is _________ on you. a) betraying b) cheating c) deceivingwww.espressoenglish.net 7 | P a g e Lesson 3 – Appearance My best friend Joanna is absolutely gorgeous (extremely beautiful). She has long, sleek, jet-black hair (sleek = smooth and straight, jet-black = perfectly black), pale blue eyes (pale = light color), and a radiant complexion (skin that appears healthy and full of energy). People always compliment her on her hourglass figure (when a woman has large breasts and hips, but a small waist) and ask her what the secret is to maintaining such a slender waist (a thin waist). She has a round face with an upturned nose, and she actually bears a striking resemblance (looks extremely similar) to a famous singer. Joanna could get any guy she wanted – so I was really surprised when she introduced me to her latest boyfriend, who I think is hideously ugly. He has curly, shoulder-length hair that looks rather unkempt (unkempt hair = messy hair, it appears that the person doesn’t take care of their hair). He has a square face and a ruddy complexion (reddish skin). His deep-set eyes (eyes that are far back in the person’s face) are almost hidden under his bushy eyebrows (big eyebrows with lots of hair), and he sports a thick mustache and a huge, shaggy beard (a beard with lots of hair). = guess Hoanna doesn’t mind his facial hair (facial hair = beard and/or mustache). :is body isn’t bad – he has an athletic build (body with a lot of muscles), with broad shoulders (wide shoulders) and muscular arms. If he would only trim his beard (cut his beard a little shorter) and comb his hair, I suppose he could be considered somewhat attractive (more or less beautiful/handsome).www.espressoenglish.net 8 | P a g e Lesson 3 Quiz comb / curly / deep-set / facial / medium / muscular / radiant / slender / striking / trim 1. This moisturizer will give you a __________________ complexion. 2. She has a __________________ waist and wide hips. 3. He bears a __________________resemblance to a good friend of mine. 4. I've never liked my __________________ hair; I wish it was straight. 5. His __________________eyes make him look very pensive. 6. I love men with __________________ hair - I think it's sexy. 7. Would you please __________________your hair? It looks like you've just gotten out of bed. 8. =’m not changing my hairstyle – =’m just getting a __________________. 9. He has a __________________ build - he's not particularly strong, but not especially skinny either. 10. My soccer coach has very __________________ legs.www.espressoenglish.net 9 | P a g e Lesson 4 – Character & Behavior When I was a teenager, I was painfully shy (extremely shy). I loved reading books, and I had a vivid imagination (had a creative and colorful imagination). My best friend had a more outgoing personality (she liked to be friendly and sociable) and a good sense of humor (ability to make other people laugh). Unfortunately she was also brutally honest, and sometimes her comments hurt my feelings (made me sad, upset, or angry). Although I was fiercely loyal to her, she showed her true colors (revealed her true personality) when she played a prank (did a trick) that humiliated me in front of the class. I bore a grudge (continued feeling angry) against her for years afterwards. Now that I look back on it, I can see that she had low self-esteem (she considered herself inferior) and a bit of a mean streak (a “streak” is a tiny bit of someone’s personality). I've come out of my shell (become less shy) since those days; I have a thicker skin (I’m less sensitive to criticism) and it doesn't bother me when people speak their minds (say exactly what they think, without considering the effects of the words on others). My biggest flaw is that I have a tendency to be arrogant – some say I have a superiority complex (consider myself superior to others). =’ll admit that it is hard for me to swallow my pride (stop being arrogant) and recognize when I've been mistaken about something. My resolution for the New Year is to make a more concerted effort to put others first (consider the needs of other people more important than my own).www.espressoenglish.net 10 | P a g e Lesson 4 – Quiz 1. A lot of successful entrepreneurs have not only a bright / lucid / vivid imagination, but also the willingness to work hard. 2. He really hurt my emotions / feelings / senses when he called me an idiot. 3. His superiority belief / complex / tendency makes him impossible to work with because he won't listen to suggestions. 4. I had to chew / eat / swallow my pride and apologize to Janet for overreacting to her criticism. 5. I like to date men with a great feel / sense / touch of humor. 6. In some cultures, it's considered very rude to say / speak / talk your mind. 7. It's good to get / put / set others first, but not at the expense of your own well-being. 8. Most people who work as comedians have very outgoing / tendency / upcoming personalities. 9. My brother is brutally / carefully / painfully shy, but I'm trying to encourage him to come out of his case / shell / skin. 10. My daughter gets along with her classmates, but she has a competitive spot / streak / strip when it comes to academics. 11. My husband forgives other people very easily; he's not one to bear / hurt / swallow a grudge. 12. She would never cheat on her husband; she's angrily / brutally / fiercely loyal to him. 13. The kids were suspended for playing a grudge / prank / streak on the teacher - they put a live snake inside her desk. 14. Working with a therapist has helped me overcome my problems with deep / low / small self-esteem. 15. You need to develop a fatter / harder / thicker skin; you can't let every little comment upset you.www.espressoenglish.net 11 | P a g e Lesson 5 – Feelings I experienced a roller coaster of emotions when my son was born (many different emotions one after another). During my wife’s pregnancy, = was ridiculously excited about the prospect of becoming a dad. On the big day, =’d imagined that everything would go smoothly and we’d be blissfully happy – but there were complications during the delivery and my wife had to have emergency surgery while I waited in the reception area, worried sick (very worried). As time went by, I got increasingly anxious because the doctors weren’t telling me anything. After two hours I was seething with anger (ready to explode with anger), and I and shouted at one of the nurses. Then the security guards came and escorted me out of the hospital. My wife was visibly disappointed (it was obvious that she was disappointed) that = wasn’t by her side when she woke up from surgery. She didn’t say anything – she’s not really one to show her feelings; she prefers to bottle up her emotions (keep her emotions hidden inside her) – but I knew I had let her down and I was terribly sorry that I had lost my temper (lost control and shown anger). The months that followed were tough. My wife became deeply depressed, and I too was an emotional wreck (a person who is very sad, confused, and upset) as I tried to juggle the demands of work and family life. But now things are starting to turn around – =’ve been pleasantly surprised at the all help we’ve gotten from our friends and neighbors. =’m just immensely grateful that my wife and son are healthy, and sometimes =’m overwhelmed with emotion as I reflect on how lucky we are (when emotion is so strong that it’s difficult to think or speak).www.espressoenglish.net 12 | P a g e Lesson 5 Quiz 1. At his mother's funeral, he was so incapacitated / overwhelmed /seething with emotion that he couldn't finish his speech. 2. I was deeply / pleasantly / significantly surprised by the excellent customer service - that company really cares about its customers. 3. I'm sorry I forgot / lost / wrecked my temper with you yesterday. It was a really stressful day at work. 4. Instead of confronting his issues, he bottles / guards / rolls up his emotions and tries to pretend everything's OK. 5. It's normal to go through a helicopter / roller coaster / ocean wave of emotions after the end of a long-term relationship. 6. My mother was worried bad / ill / sick when it passed midnight and my brother still hadn't come home. 7. The boss was pleasantly / sickly / visibly annoyed when the employees told him about the problems. 8. The fans were seething with anger / disappointment / temper when the team lost the game in the last 5 minutes. 9. We're badly / horribly / terribly sorry, but we won't be able to go to your graduation. 10. We're blissfully / immensely / largely grateful for all the help you've given us in this project.www.espressoenglish.net 13 | P a g e Lesson 6 – Houses and Apartments I recently spent a month on vacation – but instead of staying in a hotel, I looked for a short-term rental (a place to live that can be rented for a short period of time). I ended up sharing a two-bedroom apartment – that’s an apartment with two bedrooms, a living room, and a kitchen – with some friends. It was actually cheaper than renting a studio apartment (an apartment with only one big room) all by myself. The apartment was on the top floor of a five-story building (that’s a building with five floors) and it had a balcony overlooking the ocean (that means you can see the ocean from the balcony). From the roof, we also had a nice view of the city skyline (this is another expression used when you can see something from a certain place). The apartment had recently been remodeled/renovated – meaning it was fixed up and improved – and was fully furnished, so it already had furniture (beds, tables, etc.) and appliances (refrigerator, stove, etc.) We loved the spacious living room (the room was big), but unfortunately the bedrooms were rather cramped (small and uncomfortable). It was nice to spend a month there, but by the end of the trip I started to feel homesick – that’s when you feel sad because you miss your life at home. =’d really like to have a place of my own so that =’m not throwing away money on rent every month, but there’s a real shortage of affordable housing (houses/apartments that are reasonably priced) in my city. Even if I stay away from the upscale neighborhoods (areas where rich people live), =’d still have to take out a mortgage (borrow money from the bank, in order to buy a house) and it’ll take me more than 30 years to pay it off. But still, =’m gonna start saving up for a down payment (an initial payment on a big purchase). Someday, when I do move into a new place, =’ll be sure to throw a housewarming party (a party to celebrate living in a new house/apartment).www.espressoenglish.net 14 | P a g e Lesson 6 Quiz 1. Her father paid the affordable / down / studio payment on her apartment. 2. I can't stand living with my parents; I need a place of my independent / own / short-term. 3. I hope the apartment is decorated / furnished / upscale, because I can't afford to buy appliances. 4. I was having so much fun during my semester abroad that I didn't feel cramped / homesick / housewarm at all. 5. It's a ten- level / room / story building with two elevators. 6. My bedroom window overlooks / oversees / overviews the mountains. 7. My parents finished paying off their borrow / budget / mortgage after 25 years. 8. This weekend I'm helping my cousin change / move / turn into his new place. 9. We're going to need a more short-term / spacious/widespread apartment now that we're going to have a baby. 10. We're regenerating / rejuvenating / remodeling the bathroom, so you'll have to use the one on the second floor.www.espressoenglish.net 15 | P a g e Lesson 7 – Eating My mother radically changed her eating habits a few years ago. In the past, she ate a lot of junk food (food that is not nutritious/healthy) and was overweight. Sometimes she would try to go on a diet (eat less food and healthier food), but it would never last. But now she understands how unhealthy processed foods are – they’re full of food additives (chemicals added to food) that contribute to weight gain and heart problems. Nowadays, she eats a balanced diet including a lot of nourishing meals (meals that are healthy and nutritious) that she prepares herself. She doesn’t buy organic food because she thinks the prices are outrageous, but she stocks up on fresh produce (fresh fruits and vegetables) so that she can grab an apple or some veggies when she wants a quick snack (something small and fast to eat). She has also learned to eat in moderation and watch her portion sizes (how much food you take). = often stop by her house when =’m in the mood for a home-cooked meal. The other day she made a hearty stew (a thick soup with lots of flavors and ingredients) that was full of beans and vegetables. My brother, who has a healthy appetite (the capacity to eat a lot), had a second helping (a second portion) – but I found the stew so filling that I could barely finish my bowl. My mother recently told me that she’d like to try some international cuisine. I was surprised to hear that, because a few years ago she had a bad experience after getting food poisoning (when you get sick because of contaminated food) at a Hapanese restaurant. So tomorrow =’m taking her to a Brazilian steakhouse. I told her to eat light meals (small meals) during the day so that she doesn’t spoil her appetite for dinner (“spoiling your appetite” means eating food earlier, and then not being hungry for a meal later).www.espressoenglish.net 16 | P a g e Lesson 7 Quiz cuisine / diet / fresh / helping / junk / moderation / nourishing / poisoning / processed / snack 1. During the summer, our kids eat a lot of __________ food - popcorn, candy, ice cream, cookies, etc. 2. He got food __________________ after eating some seafood from a street vendor. 3. I buy __________________ produce at the farmer's market. 4. I drink in __________________; I don't like getting drunk. 5. I'm not a huge fan of Mexican __________________. It's too spicy for me. 6. I've lost ten pounds so far while on this new __________________. 7. Spinach is one of the most __________________ vegetables - it's full of vitamins and minerals. 8. That lasagna is delicious; I think I'll have another __________________. 9. The food at this restaurant is all natural - they don't use any type of __________________food. 10. We stopped driving to grab a quick __________________ at a roadside cafe.www.espressoenglish.net 17 | P a g e Lesson 8 – Movies / Books My brother is a huge fan of movies. When he sees a movie trailer (a short video offering a preview of the movie), he counts down the days until the movie comes out. He always goes to the movie theater on opening night – that’s the first day a movie, show, concert, or performance is open to the public. He also loves to analyze the film critics’ reviews (the evaluations of the people whose job is to analyze movies) and tries to guess which movies will be nominated for an award. One of his favorite movie stars (famous actors/actresses) will be starring in an upcoming film about the Vietnam War. =t’s based on a true story, and they’re shooting the film on-site in Vietnam – that means they will be recording/filming the movie in the same location as the story occurs. This particular actor had been talking about retiring, but when he was offered the leading role (the opportunity to play the most important part in a movie) in a film that’s sure to be a box-office hit (a movie that is very successful) he couldn’t turn it down. =, on the other hand, prefer books. =’m currently engrossed in a book by Stieg Larsson (the book is taking all my attention) – it’s the final part of a trilogy, and = can’t wait to see how things turn out for the main character (the most important person in the book). I already have a huge collection of books, and I also borrow books from the library. One book = took out last week deals with modern feminism and motherhood. =t’s a bit of a controversial topic, but it’s an interesting and enjoyable read. =’m not sure =’ll have time to finish it before = have to return the book to the library. Maybe =’ll renew it for another week – that means to get an extension of the length of time I can keep the book. Note: We talk about the beginning and end of a book, story, or film (not the “start and finish”). The first and last parts of a story can also be called the opening and closing scenes (in a movie) or the opening and closing chapters (in a book).www.espressoenglish.net 18 | P a g e Lesson 8 Quiz 1. A movie from an amateur filmmaker was based / nominated / presented for three awards at an international film festival. 2. Did you see the trailer / trilogy / theater for the new Star Wars movie? It looks like it'll be awesome! 3. The opening chapter / genre / scene of the movie is very violent. 4. I didn't like the close / end / finish of the movie; it just didn't seem believable. 5. I enjoyed the book because I could really identify with the main character / role / star. 6. It was a very moving film - and it was based on a factual / real / true story. 7. It's an enjoyable page / read / scene, written in a humorous and relatable style. 8. Oh no! I lost a book that I borrowed / loaned / returned from the library. 9. The documentary deals with a number of controversial / debatable / polemic topics. 10. The first movie was excellent, but the sequel got mediocre analyses / critics / reviews. 11. The movie Titanic hits / shoots / stars Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet. 12. We couldn't get a ticket for initial / opening / beginning night - they were all sold out.www.espressoenglish.net 19 | P a g e Lesson 9 – Music My older brother Alex is very musically gifted (he has a natural talent for music). He can play any tune from memory, without looking at sheet music (musical notation written on paper). He spends all his free time strumming a guitar (playing a guitar), composing music (creating music), and writing song lyrics (the words to a song). Alex and his friends formed a band that has attracted a sizable following (a lot of fans) in our city. They started out playing gigs (giving small, informal performances) in bars and clubs, and they used the money they earned to record their debut album (record their first CD). A remixed track (a song that has been modified electronically) from that CD then became a massive hit (a very popular song) on the local radio station thanks to its catchy tune (memorable melody) and upbeat tempo (fast rhythm). Their second album will be released (it will be made available to the public) at the end of the year; they’ll record it live at their next show. Alex dreams of going on tour – he’s just waiting for his big break (big opportunity to become famous) to get his foot in the door of the music industry. As for me, I love singing along (singing together) to my brother’s music, but a career in music isn’t for me – =’m completely tone-deaf (unable to correctly identify different musical notes) and I always sing off-key (sing the incorrect melody)! Additional collocations: contemporary music = modern music classical music orchestral/instrumental music = music with instruments only (no singing) rock music solo album = CD featuring one singer alone, not in a group of singers compilation album = a CD with a collection of songs from many different singers/bands cult following = a very dedicated/devoted group of fanswww.espressoenglish.net 20 | P a g e Lesson 9 Quiz gifted / lyrics / remixed / debut / strumming / tune / gig / following / tour / off-key / hit / upbeat 1. I can't stand that song; I don't know why it's such a _____________. 2. I like the song, but I don't understand the _________________. 3. I'm not really musically ______________, but I practice the violin every day. 4. It's such a catchy _____________, I can't get it out of my head! 5. My cousin's band is going on ____________ next summer; they've lined up shows in eleven different states. 6. Someone in the choir was singing _____________, and it sounded terrible. 7. The band's _____________ album was a huge success. 8. The DJ played some _______________ tracks at the wedding reception. 9. The singer has attracted quite a devoted _____________ in Korea - her concerts there are always sold out. 10. The street musician sat on a park bench, _______________ his guitar. 11. This music is so slow it's putting me to sleep. Let's listen to something with a more ___________ tempo. 12. We're going to play a ____________ at the Jazz Club on Friday night.www.espressoenglish.net 21 | P a g e Lesson 10 – Sports The first important collocation involving sports is when to use the verbs play, do, and go. We typically use play for team sports – you play soccer, play basketball, play tennis, play baseball, and play golf. The verb do is used for more individual sports – you do yoga, do gymnastics, do martial arts, and do aerobics. Also, in more general terms, you do exercise. Another common individual exercise is to lift weights. The verb go is used with most activities that end in –ing: you go swimming, go biking, go surfing, go rock climbing, go bowling, and go fishing. With the team sports, we can use the word game or match: a soccer game, a basketball game, a tennis match, etc. You can win the game, lose the game, or tie the game – that’s when the final score is 1-1 or 2-2, for example. A team can play a home game – when they play in their own stadium or field – or an away game – when they play at the opposing team’s stadium or field. When there are many teams that are playing many games to see which one is the best, we call this a tournament. When one team is winning in the middle of the game – for example, 3-1 – we say that team has the lead. However, the other team can make a comeback – score points from a losing position – and take the lead, 4-3. With the sports that use “do” and “go,” we typically use the word competition – a gymnastics competition, a martial arts competition, a surfing competition, an ice skating competition, etc. The exception is sports where you go from one place to another – like running, biking, and swimming – in that case, we often call the event a race. Athletes can enter a competition and try to win first place. Some athletes try to enhance their performance with illegal substances such as steroids. But if they fail a drug test, they’ll be disqualified from participating. If the athlete is performing well, they may achieve a personal best – and if they perform better than ANYONE ever has in the past, then they could even break the world record or set a new world record. If they get injured, however, they might have to withdraw from the competition (voluntarily leave the competition).www.espressoenglish.net 22 | P a g e Lesson 10 – Quiz 1. Barbara has made / put / set a new world record, with 5 consecutive Olympic gold medals in judo. 2. Do you want to do / go / play hiking with us this weekend? 3. How long have you been doing / going / playing football? 4. I did / played / went volleyball in college. 5. If a soccer game is failed / led / tied, they do penalty kicks to determine the winner. 6. Jeff and Diana did / played / went rock climbing in the mountains. 7. My son wants to do / go / play karate. 8. Our team won third lead / place / record in the basketball competition/ performance / tournament. 9. She's been doing / going / playing gymnastics since she was 5 years old. 10. The baseball team was unable to make a comeback / setback / takeback and lost the game 5-2. 11. The biker from Australia currently has the best / first / lead, but the bikers from Russia and Peru are close behind. 12. The ice skater broke / removed / withdrew from the competition due to a knee injury. 13. The runners were stretching before the match / race / test began. 14. Tim Randall has achieved / enhanced / won a personal best with his time of 23.04 seconds. 15. What was the final place / record / score of the baseball game?www.espressoenglish.net 23 | P a g e Lesson 11 – Health & Sickness There are a number of lifestyle changes you can make to improve your overall health and increase your life expectancy (how long you are expected to live) – you can quit smoking, reduce stress, eat a balanced diet, get plenty of sleep, and exercise regularly. =t’s also important to get vaccinations/immunizations to prevent diseases. No matter how healthy you are, it’s still a good idea to have health insurance – a program/plan to cover expenses in case of an accident or serious illness. =f you’re in a car accident, you might suffer/sustain serious injuries. Of course, if you’re wearing your seatbelt, you’re more likely to have only minor injuries. =f you’ve broken/fractured a bone – for example, your leg – the doctor will put your leg in a cast. If you have a cut, the doctor will give you stitches. If you have a burn, the doctor will give you an ointment to prevent infection. If you have a minor ailment like a headache, you can take some aspirin to relieve the pain (reduce the effects of the pain). If you suffer from a chronic condition (a condition that continues for a long time) like allergies, asthma, back pain, or depression, there are both over-the counter and prescription medications that can help alleviate the symptoms (an over-the-counter medication is one that you can buy without a doctor’s prescription). When someone has a minor respiratory infection, we say they have a cold. Don’t get too close to that person, because you could catch a cold, too! You can “catch” other types of contagious diseases as well – such as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs). If someone is diagnosed with a more serious illness such as cancer or AIDS, they’ll need more extensive treatment. When a disease has progressed so far that it will be impossible to cure, then the patient is said to be terminally ill – in other words, the person will definitely die of the disease soon.www.espressoenglish.net 24 | P a g e Lesson 11 Quiz Match the two halves of these sentences: 1. Adults who have diabetes need to make some lifestyle a) with multiple sclerosis. 2. After a series of exams, Diana was diagnosed b) vaccinations before traveling to a tropical country. 3. He suffers from chronic c) the pain and reduce swelling. 4. He takes some very strong prescription d) medications to treat his bipolar disorder. 5. If you pull a muscle, ice can help relieve e) insurance, so she had to pay for the surgery herself. 6. Japan has the highest life f) injuries - just some cuts and bruises. 7. My daughter has a bad g) ill and should be made as comfortable as possible. 8. My son needs to get some h) expectancy in the world, at 83 years. 9. She didn't have health i) diet and get lots of exercise. 10. The best way to lose weight is to eat a balanced j) cold, so she's staying home from school today. 11. The patient in room 4 is terminally k) changes, such as cutting down on sugar. 12. They walked away from the accident with minor l) back pain thanks to years of poor posture.www.espressoenglish.net 25 | P a g e Lesson 12 – Computers =’m teaching my grandmother how to use a computer. First = showed her how to start up and shut down the computer. Then, I helped her get online or access the internet so that she can check her e-mail. She quickly learned how to write and send messages, reply to an e-mail and forward an e-mail (send a complete e-mail that you received to a new person), but it was a little hard for her to remember how to attach a file to an outgoing message. We tried to log into her bank account online, but the bank’s website was down (the website was not functional, or was not online). There was a notice on the home page (the main page of the website) that they were doing some scheduled maintenance on the system – so we’ll try again tomorrow. This afternoon, =’ll teach her how to use a search engine. = think she’ll really enjoy surfing/browsing the web (exploring the internet) and using social media. If she needs to do something more advanced, like burn a CD (put files from a computer onto a CD), then I can do that for her. She’s a little bit afraid of pressing the wrong key and accidentally deleting an important file, but I told her that we can always recover the file from the recycling bin. I also explained that if the computer freezes or locks up (stops moving/functioning), she can simply restart/reboot the computer. =t’s also a good idea for her to back up her files (make an extra copy of the information) so that she doesn’t lose her data if the computer crashes (the computer breaks) and can’t be repaired. I installed a program that periodically runs scans for viruses and spyware to ensure that her computer hasn’t been infected.

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