Collins Vocabulary for IELTS

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Collins Vocabulary for IELTS.



Cuốn Sách gồm 20 chủ đề bài quen thuộc, đơn giản nhưng đủ bao quát tổng thể những từ vựng cần thiết cho bài thi IELTS đồng thời từng bước nâng cao trình độ bằng cách cung cấp những chiến lược, mẹo làm bài.



Nội dung của sách được tóm tắt như sau:

– Từ bài 1 – 9 sẽ là những từ vựng thuộc chủ đề gần gũi với đời sống thường nhật như sức khỏe, giáo dục,…

– Từ bài 11 – 19 là tổng hợp thành nhóm từ diễn tả chức năng như vấn đề, giải pháp khắc phục…

– Bài 10 sẽ xuất hiện lại những từ đã học ở những bài 1 – 9 và những từ ở bài 11 – 19 sẽ được bắt gặp lại ở bài 20 của sách. Tạo cơ hội cho bạn ghi nhớ vững chắc kiến thức đã học và củng cố thêm kĩ năng về cụm từ hay nghĩa của những từ ít thấy trong các ngữ cảnh khác nhau.



Mỗi bài chia làm 3 phần:

Phần 1: Liệt kê khối từ vựng tương ứng với chủ đề đưa ra mỗi bài

Phần 2: Những bài tập giúp bạn lưu ngay từ vựng đã học trước đó vào trí óc và hiểu cách vận dụng chúng từng ngữ cảnh.

Phần 3: Bài kiểm tra giống với đề thi thật để bạn có thể làm quen dần đi kèm với mục đánh dấu những mẹo, lời khuyên làm bài hữu ích.

Bên cạnh đó, sách còn cung cấp file Audio cho bạn luyện cách áp dụng và kiểm tra vốn từ vựng đã học vào kĩ năng Listening và Speaking.

Nội dung

ContentsU n it T opic1 People and O relationsh ips2 H ealth3 Education4 A dventure5 Gadgets6 CitiesV o c a b u la ry S k i llS u b - s k illsExamp ra c tic ePagen u m b e rN ouns f o r people and re la tio n s h ip s ; ad je ctive s to d e s c rib e c h a r a c te rL is te n in gR ecognizing a d je c tiv e s fr o m t h e ir e n din g s; w o rk in g out th e m eaning o f w o rd s fr o m lis te n in g c o n te x tL is te n in g Section 4 - MCQs6N ouns f o r s y m p to m s ; v e rb s f o r tre a tm e n tsReadingR ecognizing syn o nym s and c o llo c a tio n sReading - T/F/N G10N ouns fo r a c a de m ic s u b je c ts ; v e rb s f o r a ca de m ic stu d yW ritin g Choosing the r ig h t p a rt of speech; w r itin g in an a c a de m ic styleW ritin g Task 214Verbs and nouns f o r tr a v e llin g ; ad je ctive s to d e s c rib e ex p e rie n c e sSpeaking E xp re ssin g fin e r shades of m e a n in g ; using c o m m o n and le s s c o m m o n vo c a b u la ry ; w o rd s tre s sSpeaking P a rt 218N ouns to d e s c rib e d im e n s io n s ; v e rb s to d e s c rib e pro cesse sL is te n in gC o llo c a tio n s ; w o rd s w ith d iffe r e n t sensesL is te n in g S e ctio ns 1 and 2 - la b e llin g a d ia g ra m - c la s s ify in g22N ou n s a ssociated w ith hu m an ge og ra p hy; ad je c tiv e s to d e s c rib e placesReadingR ecognizings u p e ro rd in a tete r m s ;re c o g n iz in gpo sitive andnegativec o n n o ta tio nReading -m a tc h in gheadings26fbhw Rh1mC o nt e s P np i s p h H E uh c A v G n u u v E H g T G nuuT P c h p tnp m o E w H m cNThe a r t ofR e p o rtin g v e rb s ; W ritin gE x p re ssin g W ritin g30persuasionnoun s a sso c ia te d w ith p e rs u a s io nd if fe r e n t p o in ts of v iew ; p re s e n tin g an a r g u m e n tT a s k 28Getting involvedN ou n s f o r fo r m sS p e akin gE x p re ssin gS peaking34o * 1 1 *of e n te r ta in m e n t;lik e s and P a rt 1v e rb s a sso c ia te d w ith in v o lv e m e n td is lik e s ; using p h ra s a l v e rb s ; p ro n o u n c in g th e le t t e r 's ’9Global w a rm in gVerbs to de scrib eL is te n in g R ecognizingL is te n in g38o* 1 I *n a tu ra l processes; a n to n y m s ;S e ctio n 4 -nouns associated w ith c lim a tep re fix e sc o m p le tin gn otes10Revision 1S e le c tio n of w o rd sA l l s k ills S e le c tio n of s u b -42Qfr o m u n its 1 -9s k ills fr o m u n its 1 -911W ords fo rN ouns f o r types o f W r itin g D e s c rib in g andW ritin g46describingg ra p h ic s and t h e ir s u m m a riz in gT a s k 1graphs andc o m p o n e n tsv is u a l datadiag ram s12W ords fo rN ou n s and v e rb s S p e akingP o sitive andS p e aking50describingf o r d e s c rib in gnegative P a rt 3■■ rchangech ange; tim e e x p re s s io n sc o n n o ta tio n ;p ro n o u n c in gc o n s o n a n ts13W ordsW o rd s f o rL is te n in g C o llo c a tio n ;L is te n in g54( ^ expressingc o m p a ris o n and p a rts of speechS e ctio n 3 -•• rs im ila r ity andc o n tr a s tc o m p le tin g ad iffe re n c es u m m a r yuW ordsV e rb s and nouns Reading R ecognizingReading -58describingin d ic a tin g cause syn o nym s,MCQscause and e ffec tand e ffe c t a n to n y m s , s u p e ro rd in a te s and e x a m p le sExamUnit TopicVocabulary S k illS u b -skillspractice15SignpostingW o rd s f o r W ritin gL in k in gW ritin gexpressions fo ro rd e rin g , a d ditio n ,s e n te n c e s ;T a sk 2w ritin gconcession, g e n e ra liz a tio n s , and c o n c lu s io n s (w ritte n re g is te r)sig n p o s tin g an essay16AdverbsA d ve rbs f o r S peakingA dd in g in te r e s tSpeakingOe x p re s s in gto spoken P a rt 1 -a ttitu d e and adding d e ta ila n s w e rs ;p ro n o u n c in gschwain tro d u c tio n and in te rv ie w17W ords fo rN ouns f o rL is te n in g R ecognizingL is te n in g -prob lem s andd iffe r e n t c o llo c a tio n s ;s h o r t- a n s w e r■i i 1solutionsp ro b le m s ; v e rb s f o r s o lvin g p ro b le m ss p e llin gq u e s tio n s18W ords fo rNouns associatedReading R ecognizing Reading -ta lk in g aboutw ith ideas; f in e r shades c o m p le tin gideasa d je c tiv e s fo r e v a lu a tin g ideasof m e a nin g ; po sitive and negative c o n n o ta tio na s u m m a ry ; m a tc h in g sentence endin g s19Emphasis andW o rd s d e s c rib in gW ritin g R ecognizing W ritin gu n d e rs ta te m e n tq u a n tity , de gre e and de gre e of c e rta in tys tre n g th of c la im ; m o re c o llo c a tio n sTask 1 - s u m m a riz in g v is u a l in fo rm a tio n20Revision 2S e le c tio n of w o rd sA ll s k illsS e le c tio n ofofr o m u n its 11-19s u b - s k ills fr o m u n its 11-19Audio script A n sw er key Collocations IELTS inform atio nPagen u m b e r62667074788286104111124IntroductionW h o is th is book fo r?Vocabulary fo r IELTS h elps you im pro ve y o u r v o c a b u la ry w hen p re p a rin g f o r th e IELTS e xa m in a tio n. You can use the book to s tu d y on y o u r own o r as s u p p le m e n ta ry m a te r ia l f o r IELTS p re p a ra tio n classes. It is s u ita b le fo r le a rn e rs at leve l 5.0 to 5.5 a im in g f o r band score 6.0 o r hig h e r.S u m m a r yThe Vocabulary fo r IELTS book and CD c o v e r v o c a b u la ry ite m s and s k ills w h ic h a re re le v a n t to a ll f o u r exam pa pe rs: L is te n in g , Reading, W r itin g and S peaking. In each u n it, you w o r k to w a rd s an exam p ra c tic e e x e rc is e w h ic h is m o d e lle d on th e a c tu a l IELTS exam . Each u n it c o n ta in s a c tiv itie s th a t h e lp you develop, s te p -b y -s te p , th e v o c a b u la ry k n o w le d g e and s k ills to h e lp you ta c k le the exam . Exam tip s th r o u g h o u t th e book h ig h lig h t e s s e n tia l v o c a b u la r y -r e la te d le a rn in g s tra te g ie s and exam te c h n iq u e s .C o n te n tUnitsEach u n it is divided into th re e p a rts.P a rt 1: V ocabulary in tro d u c e s v o c a b u la ry re la te d to the to p ic o r fu n c tio n of th e u n it. D e fin itio n s f o r th is v o c a b u la ry a re p re s e n te d using C o llin s COBUILD fu ll- s e n te n c e d e fin itio n s , and IELTS- s ty le e x a m p le s e n te n c e s s h o w how the w o r d s a re used in c o n te x t. P a rts of speech and the d iffe r e n t fo r m s of the w o rd s are also lis te d .P a rt 2: Practice exercises p rovide a s tr u c t u r e d se t of e x e rc is e s w h ic h h e lp you develop th e s k ills to s u c c e s s fu lly a p p ly v o c a b u la ry k n o w le d g e to the exam . Each u n it fo c u s e s on develo p in g v o c a b u la ry and s k ills f o r a p a r tic u la r paper, and th e p ra c tic e e x e rc is e s pro vid e p ra c tic e f o r the p a r t ic u la r paper.P art 3: Exam practice provides exam p ra ctice exercises in a fo rm a t th a t fo llo w s the a c tu a l exam giving you the o p p o rtu n ity to fa m ilia riz e y o u rs e lf w ith the kinds of q u estio n s you w il l e n c o u n te r in the exam. This section focuses on a p a rtic u la r exam paper and is h ig h lig h te d in grey f o r easy reference.Exam tipsT h e re a re exam tip s and s tr a te g ie s in each u n it. These a re in boxes f o r easy re fe re n c e .Audio scriptA ll audio f o r th e L is te n in g and S peaking p a p e r has been re c o rd e d on th e CD u sing native s p e a k e rs of E n g lish . A f u l l a udio s c r ip t is p ro vid e d at th e back of th e book so th a t you can ch eck th e la n g u a g e used in th e lis te n in g and s p e a k in g e xe rc is e s , if needed.Answer keyA c o m p re h e n s iv e a n s w e r key is p rovided f o r a ll s e c tio n s of th e book in c lu d in g m o d e l a n s w e rs f o r m o re o p e n -e n d e d w r it in g and s p e a k in g ta s k s .CollocationsA t th e back of th e book, you can f u r t h e r de velo p y o u r v o c a b u la ry by s tu d y in g th e lis t of th e m o st c o m m o n c o llo c a tio n s f o r th e v o c a b u la ry p re s e n te d in th e u n its .H ow to use this bookThe book is divided into 20 u n its. U nits 1 -9 c o v e r v o c a b u la ry f o r to p ic s th a t fr e q u e n tly a p p e a r in th e exam , such as h e a lth and e d uca tio n . U nits 11-19 c o ve r w o rd s fo r g e n e ra l fu n c tio n s , such as d e s c rib in g p ro b le m s and s o lu tio n s . U nits 10 and 20 provide re visio n e xe rcise s. U nit 10 re vise s the v o c a b u la ry and s k ills covered in U n its 1-9, and U n it 20 re vise s th e v o c a b u la ry and s k ills covered in U n its 11 -19. A ll 20 u n its h elp you develop s k ills such as p a ra p h ra s in g and w o rk in g out th e m e a nin g of u n f a m ilia r w o rd s fr o m context.Each u n it is s e lf-c o n ta in e d so th a t you can s tu d y th e u n its in any o rd e r. You can choose th e u n it you w a n t to s tu d y e it h e r by s e le c tin g th e to p ic you w a n t to study, o r by s e le c tin g w h ic h exam p a p e r you w a n t to p ra c tis e . Only th e u n its w ith p ra c tic e on th e S peaking and L is te n in g pa pe rs c o n ta in audio. The c o n te n ts pages at th e b e g in n in g of th e book provide an o v e rvie w of w h a t is in each u n it so you can use th is to choose w h ic h u n its you w o u ld lik e to s tu d y f ir s t. These pages also give you in fo rm a tio n on w h ic h u n its c o n ta in audio.You w il l p ro b a b ly fin d it h e lp fu l to begin each u n it by re a d in g th e v o c a b u la ry ite m s in p a rt 1, then w o rk in g th ro u g h th e e x e rc is e s in p re p a ra tio n f o r th e exam p ra c tic e e x e rc is e at the end. T ry to do th e exam e x e rc is e s w ith in th e tim e lim it to give y o u r s e lf r e a lis tic exam p ra c tic e .In o r d e r to le a rn a new w o rd , it is u s u a lly n e c essa ry to re v is it it s e v e ra l tim e s . The re v is io n u n its h elp you to do th is . However, it is a lso a good idea to avoid w r it in g y o u r a n s w e rs in th e book so th a t you can do th e e x e rc is e s again at a la te r date.It is a lso a d visable to keep a v o c a b u la ry notebook. K now ing a w o rd and how to use it involves u n d e rs ta n d in g m any asp ects of it. The m o re in fo r m a tio n you can re c o rd ab ou t the w o rd s you are le a rn in g , th e m o re u s e fu l it w il l be. Key d e fin itio n s , p a r tis ] of speech, c o m m o n c o llo c a tio n s and e x a m p le se n te n c e s are a ll v e ry h e lp fu l. D on’t fo r g e t to use th e C o llo c a tio n s s e ctio n at th e back of the book to help w ith th is .G etting w e ll- in fo r m e d fe e d b ack on y o u r w r it in g and s p e akin g exam p ra c tic e e x e rc is e s w o u ld also be an advantage. H ow ever, if th is is not p o ssib le it is s t i l l im p o r ta n t to do th e e x e rc is e s in f u ll. S tudying m o d e l a n s w e rs can help you develop th e a b ility to assess y o u r own w o rk . If p o ssible, re c o rd y o u r s e lf w hen sp e akin g , and lis te n c a r e fu lly to y o u r p e rfo rm a n c e . Avoid m e m o ris in g m o d e l a n s w e rs . R e m e m b e r th a t in th e a c tu a l exam , it is im p o r ta n t to a n s w e r th e q u e s tio n and not j u s t sp e ak o r w r ite a b out th e to p icAs a fin a l p re p a ra tio n be fo re th e exam, you co uld r e - re a d th e exam tip s in th e boxes. T his w il l re m in d you of th e s tra te g ie s f o r success in th e exam.01 People and relationshipsD e s c r ib in g p e o p le I R e c o g n iz in g a d je c t iv e s I W o r k in g o u t m e a n in g f r o m c o n te x tVocabularyPeople in relationship:• c lien t (clients)NOUN A c lien t of a p ro fe s s io n a l p e rson o r o rg a n iz a tio n is a p e rson th a t re ce ive s a s e rv ic e fr o m th e m in r e tu r n f o r p a ym en t. ■ a s o lic ito r and his c lie n t ■ The company re q uire s c lie n ts to pay s u b s ta n tia l fees in advance.• colleag u e (colleagues)NOUN Y o u r colleagues a re th e people you w o r k w ith , e s p e c ia lly in a p ro fe s s io n a l job.■ Female academics are s t i l l paid less than th e ir m ale colleagues. ■ In the corporate world, the best sources o f business are y o u r fo r m e r colleagues.• e m p lo y e r (em p loyers)NOUN Y o u r e m p lo y e r is th e pe rson o r o rg a n iz a tio n th a t you w o r k fo r. ■ em ployers who h ire ille g a l w o rk e rs ■ The telephone com pany is the country's la rg e s t employer.• p a re n t (parents)NOUN Y o u r parents a re y o u r m o th e r and fa th e r. ■ C hildren need th e ir parents. ■ When you become a p a re n t the things you once cared about seem to have less value.• sibling (siblings)NOUN Y o u r siblings a re y o u r b r o th e r s and s is te r s . [FORMAL] ■ Some studies have found th a t c h ild re n are m ore frie n d ly to y o u n g e r s ib lin g s o f the same sex. ■ Sibling r iv a lr y often causes p a ren ts anxieties.• spouse (spouses)NOUN S om eone’s spouse is the person they are m a rrie d to. Husbands and wives do not have to pay any inheritance tax when th e ir spouse dies.Describing people:• autonomousADJECTIVE An autonomous personm a k e s t h e ir own d e c is io n s r a t h e r th a n being in flu e n c e d by so m e on e e lse ■ They p ro u d ly de cla re d them selves p a r t o f a new autonom ous province. ■ the lib e ra l idea o f the autonom ous individual• consistentADJECTIVE Som eone w ho is consistent a lw a ys behaves in th e sam e way, has the sam e a ttitu d e s to w a rd s people o r th in g s , o r achieves th e sam e le v e l of s u cce ss in s o m e th in g . ■ B e cke r has never been the m o st con sisten t o f pla ye rs anyway. ■ his co nsistent s u p p o rt o f free trade ■ a co n sisten t c h a ra c te r w ith a m a jo r th e m a tic function• conventio nalADJECTIVE S om e on e w h o is conventio nal has b e h a v io u r and o p in io n s th a t a re o r d in a r y and n o r m a l. ■ a re spectable m a r r ie d woman w ith conventional opinions■ th is close, fa ir ly c onventional English fa m ily• co -o p era tiv e also cooperativeADJECTIVE If you say th a t so m e on e is co-op erative, you m ean th a t th e y do w h a t you ask th e m w it h o u t c o m p la in in g o r a rg u in g . ■ The p re s id e n t said the v isit w ould develop frie n d ly and co-operative re la tio n s between the two countries. ■ a contented and co-operative w orkforce• efficien tADJECTIVE If s o m e th in g o r so m e on e is efficient, th e y a re a b le to do ta s k sLnr2xl125j En5 Qu6sRT E p p m T T WE uuA 4 - nt ^ s E t - h T tno 1 tnw m s c momc1Aq , With today’s m ore e ffic ie n t contraception women can plan th e ir fam ilies and careers. ■ Technological advances a llo w m ore e ffic ie n t use o f labour. ■ an e ffic ie n t way o f testing thousands o f compounds• fle x ib leADJECTIVE S o m e th in g o r so m eone th a t is fle x ib le is able to change e a s ily and adapt to d iffe r e n t c o n d itio n s and c irc u m s ta n c e s .■ m ore flexible arran g e m e nts to a llo w access to services a fte r n o rm a l w orkin g hours • We encourage flexible working.• idealisticADJECTIVE If you describe someone as idealistic, you mean th a t they have ideals, and base th e ir behaviour on these ideals, evenif th is may be im pra ctica l. ■ Idealistic young people died fo r the cause. ■ an over-sim plistic and idealistic vision o f fam ily dynamics• to le ra n tADJECTIVE If you de scrib e som eone as to leran t, you approve of the fa c t th a t they a llo w o th e r people to say and do as they like, even if they do not agree w ith o r like it. ■ [+of] They need to be to le ran t o f d iffe re nt points o f view. ■ Other changes include more to le ran t attitudes to un m arrie d couples having children.• v u ln e ra b leADJECTIVE Som eone w ho is v u ln e ra b le is w e a k and w ith o u t p ro te c tio n , w ith th e r e s u lt th a t th e y a re e a s ily h u r t p h y s ic a lly o r e m o tio n a lly . ■ Old people are p a r tic u la r ly vulnerable m em bers o f o u r society.Practice exercisesC irc le th e w o r d s th a t you a s s o c ia te w it h f a m ily r e la tio n s h ip s . U n d e r lin e th e w o r d s you a s s o c ia te w it h p r o fe s s io n a l r e la tio n s h ip s .a c lie n t d c o lle a g u eb p a re n t e spousec s ib lin g f e m p lo y e rL is te n to th r e e s p e a k e rs t a lk in g a b o u t p e o p le w h o have been im p o r ta n t to th e m . In d ic a te th e p e rs o n each s p e a k e r d e s c rib e s by w r it in g a l e t t e r a - f fr o m E x e rc is e 1 in each space.1 2 3 j E x a m tip :i • You can o ften re co gn ize w h e th e r a w o rd is a noun, verb, a d je ctive o r adverb fr o m its ending.: • A d je c tiv e s can have m any d iffe r e n t e n din g s, but th e s e a re co m m o n .- a b le / - ib levulnerable, flexible-icide a listic- a lconventional-iveco-operative- a n t / - e n ttolerant, consistent, e ffic ie n t-o u sautonom ousj • L e arn to re co gn ize these.pTnc1T 2i3 5T12tVnioaVcoC o n L is te n a g ain to th e th r e e s p e a k e r s and w r it e d o w n th e a d je c tiv e s f r o m th e ta b le above01 th a t you h e a r. L is te n f o r th e w o r d e n d in g s : -a b le , - ib le , - a l, - a n t, - e n t, -ic , -iv e , -o u s .123Exam tip: In P a rt 4 of th e IELTS L is te n in g exam you have to lis te n to a ta lk on a to p ic of g e n e ra l a c a d e m ic in te re s t.You do not need to k n o w a ll of th e v o c a b u la ry .If you h e a r a w o rd you d o n ’t know , lis te n f o r e x p re s s io n s lik e :a i.e.b in o th e r w o rd s c th a t is d by ... I m ean e th a t is to sayThe te x t th a t fo llo w s th e s e e x p re s s io n s h e lp s you u n d e rs ta n d th e w o rd .E xa m p le : Em ployers value c o n s c ie n tio u s w orkers, th a t is w o rke rs who com plete tasks w ith care.L is te n to th e e x tr a c t fr o m a le c t u r e a b o u t o n ly c h ild r e n and n o tic e th e e x p re s s io n th e02 s p e a k e r uses to in d ic a te she is d e fin in g th e ke y e x p re s s io n s 1 -6 b e lo w . L o ok back a t th eExam t ip and w r it e a l e t t e r a - e in each space.1o n ly c h ild re n2p a re n ta l re s o u rc e s3t o le r a n t ......4r n - n p e r a tiv e5a u to n o m y6u n c o n v e n tio n a l0 5 L is te n to th e e x tr a c t a g ain and c o m p le te th e d e fin itio n s th e s p e a k e r g ive s f o r w o r d s 1 - 602 above. W r ite one w o r d in each space.1 o n ly c h ild r e n - ‘ c h ild r e n w i t h o u t____________’2 p a re n ta l re s o u rc e s - ‘ not ju s t m oney, b ut a l s o____________a n d____________’3 to le r a n t - ‘able to a c c e p t___________’4 c o -o p e ra tiv e - ‘able to w o r k____________w i t h---------------------’5 a u to n o m y - ‘a b ility t o____________t h e ir o w n---------------------’6 u n c o n v e n tio n a l - ‘ n ot q u i t e____________in s o c ia l t e r m s ’q Lnr2xl125j En5 Qu6sRExam practice: Listening exam Section 4Unit 1O L iste n to th e le c t u r e e x t r a c t a b o u t b irth o r d e r and p e r s o n a lity and a n s w e r 03 q u e s tio n s 1 - 5 by ch o o sin g th e c o r r e c t l e t t e r A, B o r C.Exam tip: L is te n fo r key a d je c tiv e s and c lu e s in th e c o n te x t f o r w h a t th e y m ean.1 W hat does th e s p e a k e r d is c u s s in re la tio n to p e rs o n a lity ?A F a m ily sizeB The re la tio n s h ip betw een c h ild re n and th e ir p a re n ts C P e o p le ’s p o s itio n in th e fa m ily2 W hat does th e s p e a k e r im p ly a b o u t anxiety?A It is a positive tr a it .B It is a negative t r a it.C It is e x p e rie n c e d by y o u n g e r s ib lin g s .3 W hat do som e r e s e a rc h e rs say ab ou t y o u n g e s t c h ild re n ?A They fo r m r e la tio n s h ip s easily.B They a g ree w ith th e o p in io n s of o th e r people.C They lik e it if people a g ree w ith th e m .4 W hy are m id d le c h ild re n c o n s id e re d to be re b e llio u s ?A They d o n ’t lik e to be to ld w h a t to do.B They d o n ’t k n o w how to be a g ree a b le .C They lik e to be d if fe r e n t fr o m o th e rs .5 W hat does th e s p e a k e r say a b ou t th e q u a lity of re s e a rc h on b irth o rd e r?A M o st re s e a rc h has been done c o rre c tly .B M ost re s e a rc h has been done in c o rre c tly .C M ost re s e a rc h has com e to a c le a r c o n c lu s io n .pTnc1T 2i3 5T12tVnioaVco O2 HealthN a m in g h e a lth p r o b le m s and t r e a t m e n t s I R e c o g n iz in g s y n o n y m s | R e c o g n iz in g c o llo c a tio n sVocabularyHealth problems:• addiction (addictions)NOUN Addiction is th e c o n d itio n of ta k in g h a r m f u l d ru g s and being u n a b le to stop ta k in g th e m . ■ lo n g -te rm addiction to nicotine• a lle r g y (a lle rg ies )NOUN If you have a p a r tic u la r a lle rg y , you becom e i l l o r get a rash w hen you eat, s m e ll, o r to u ch s o m e th in g th a t does not n o r m a lly m ake people ill. ■ Food alle rg ie s can r e s u lt in an enorm ous variety o f d iffe re n t symptoms.• cancer (cancers)NOUN C ancer is a s e rio u s disease in w h ic h c e lls in a p e rs o n ’ s body in c re a s e ra p id ly in an u n c o n tro lle d way, p ro d u c in g a b n o rm a l g ro w th s . ■ a cancer research c h a rity• dehydrationUNCOUNTABLE NOUN You a re s u ffe rin g fr o m d ehydration if you lose too m u ch w a t e r fr o m y o u r body. ■ Cholera causes severe dehydration.• disease (diseases)NOUN A disease is an illn e s s th a t a ffe c ts people, a n im a ls o r p la n ts , f o r e x a m p le one w h ic h is caused by b a c te ria o r in fe c tio n .■ the ra p id spread o f disease in the area• infection (infections)NOUN An infection is a disease caused by g e rm s o r b a c te ria . ■ E ar infe ction s are com m on in p re -s c h o o l children.• obesityUNCOUNTABLE NOUN S om eone s u ffe r in g fr o m obesity is e x tr e m e ly fa t. ■ The excessive consum ption o f s u g a r leads to obesity• stroke (strokes)NOUN If so m e o n e has a s tro ke, a blood v e s s e l in t h e ir b ra in b u rs ts o r becom es b lo cke d , w h ic h m ay k i l l th e m o r m a ke th e m u n a b le to move one side of t h e ir body. ■ He had a m in o r s tro k e in 1987, which le ft him p a r tly paralyzed.Verbs associated with trea tm en t:• a d m in is te r (a d m in iste rs , a d m in isterin g , a d m in is te re d )VERB If a d o c to r o r n u rs e ad m in is te rs a d ru g , th e y give it to a p a tie n t. ■ Param edics are tra in e d to a d m in is te r ce rta in drugs.• a d m it (adm its, ad m ittin g , adm itted )VERB If so m e o n e is ad m itte d to h o s p ita l th e y a re ta k e n in to h o s p ita l f o r tr e a tm e n t and ke p t th e re u n til th e y a re w e ll enough to go hom e. ■ She was a d m itte d to h o spita l with a so a rin g te m perature.• diagnose (diagnoses, diagnosing, diagnosed)VERB If so m e o n e o r s o m e th in g is diagnosed as having a p a r tic u la r illn e s s o r p ro b le m , t h e ir illn e s s o r p ro b le m is id e n tifie d .■ A lm o s t a m illio n people are diagnosed w ith colon cancer each year.• discharge (discharges, discharging, discharged)VERB W hen so m e on e is discharged fro m h o s p ita l, th e y a re o f fic ia lly a llo w e d to leave, o r to ld th e y m u s t leave. ■ He has a broken nose b ut m ay be discharged today.• exam in e (exam ines, exam in ing , exam in ed)VERB If a d o c to r exam in es you, he o r she lo o k s at y o u r body, fe e ls it, o r does s im p leLnr2xl125j En5 Qu6sRUnit 2tm T tT no s c ( m c ts p^m pG ^s- ^ m h ut^ A AsE hcmq, A n o th e r d o c to r examined h e r and could s t ill fin d nothing wrong.• screen (screens, screening, screened) VERB To screen fo r a disease m eans to e xa m in e people to m ake su re th a t they do not have it. ■ Men over 50 are ro u tin e ly screened fo r p ro sta te abnorm alities.• vaccinate (vaccinates, vaccinating, vaccinated)VERB A v accine is a h a rm le s s fo r m of th e g e rm s th a t cause a p a r tic u la r disease. If a person o r a n im a l is vaccinated, th e y a re given a vaccine, u s u a lly by in je c tio n , to p re v e n t th e m g e ttin g th a t disease. ■ Dogs m u s t be vaccinated against distemper.Practice exercisesThe w o r d s b e lo w d e s c rib e d if fe r e n t d is o r d e r s . C irc le th e w o r d s th a t you a s s o c ia te w it h ric h c o u n tr ie s . U n d e r lin e th e w o r d s you a s s o c ia te w it h p o o r c o u n tr ie s .a in fe c tio n e s tro k eb h e a rt disease f d e h y d ra tio nc a lle r g ie s g a d dictio nd ob esityRead th e passage b e lo w and c o m p a re y o u r a n s w e rs to E x e rc is e 1 w it h th e in f o r m a tio n in th e passage.Diseases of Affluence - Diseases of PovertyH ea lth c o n d itio n s a sso cia te d w ith w e a lth are s o m e tim e s r e fe rre d to as diseases of a fflu e n c e . These in c lu d e d iseases w h ic h are not c o m m u n ic a b le , such as Type 2 d iabetes, ca n cer, and s tro k e as w e ll as a lc o h o l and d ru g a d d ic tio n , o b e s ity and som e a lle rg ie s .Risk fa c to r s f o r th e se c o n d itio n s are a sso cia te d w ith th e life s ty le of th e e c o n o m ic a lly p ro s p e ro u s , in p a r tic u la r : p h y s ic a l in a c tiv ity , easy a v a ila b ility of m eat, su g ar, s a lt and p ro cesse d foods, excessive c o n s u m p tio n of a lc o h o l and tobacco, and lo w e r e x p o s u re to in fe c tio u s agents.The diseases of poverty, in c o n tra s t, are p re d o m in a n tly in fe c tio u s d iseases such as HIV/AIDS, tu b e rc u lo s is , m a la ria and d ia r r h o e a l diseases. Risk fa c to rs f o r th e se c o n d itio n s in c lu d e : o v e rc ro w d in g , ina d e q ua te s a n ita tio n , m a ln u tr itio n , and in a d e q ua te access to h e a lth care. M illio n s of lives co uld be saved every y e a r by a d d re s s in g th e se u n d e rly in g p ro b le m s and by s im p le p re ven tive m e a s u re s such as im m u n iz in g th e p o p u la tio n a g a in s t c o m m o n in fe c tio u s agents.Exam tip: In th e IELTS Reading exam you m ay have to in d ic a te w h e th e r s ta te m e n ts ab ou t a passage are True, False o r N ot given (i.e. not m e n tion e d ).You can o fte n re co gn ize a T ru e s ta te m e n t if you can m a tch it to a p a rt of the passage th a t e x p re s s e s th e sam e idea in d iffe r e n t w o rd s .Recognizing synonym s (words w ith a p p ro x im a te ly the sam e meaning) can help you do this.E xam ple: A lle rg ie s are common in w e a lth y countries. A lle rg ie s are common in a f f lu e n t countries.sbfyaS w wd U n d e r lin e w o r d s in th e passage f o r E x e rc is e 2 w h ic h c o u ld be re p la c e d by th e w o r d s in b o ld b e lo w .1 M in o r s k in d is o r d e r s do not n o r m a lly re q u ire h o s p ita l tr e a tm e n t.2 M is u s e of p r e s c rip tio n d ru g s is a g ro w in g p ro b le m .3 G e rm s can cause s to m a c h upsets.4 V a c c in a tin g c h ild r e n a g a in s t m e a s le s has re d uce d th e p re v a le n c e of th is disease.4 The w o r d s b e lo w d e s c rib e a c tio n s t h a t m e d ic a l s t a ff m a y ta k e w h e n a p e rs o n e n te r s h o s p ita l. N u m b e r th e v e rb s fr o m 1 to 5 to s h o w th e o r d e r in w h ic h th e y t y p ic a lly o c c u r.d ia g n o s e___ d is c h a r g e___ a d m i t___ t r e a t____ e xa m in eExam tip: In th e IELTS Reading exam you m ay have to c o m p le te gaps in s e n te n c e s w ith w o rd s fr o m a re a d in g passage. R ecognizing c o llo c a tio n s (i.e. w o rd s th a t c o m m o n ly go to g e th e r) can h e lp you do th is .If you lo o k c a r e fu lly at th e w o rd s on e it h e r side of the gap you m ay be able to use y o u r k n o w le d g e of c o llo c a tio n s to choose th e r ig h t w o rd (s ).E xa m p le : The p a tie n t w a s_______fo r cancer. The p a tie n t was tre a te d fo r cancer.C o m p le te th e s e n te n c e s b e lo w w it h w o r d s a - e . L o o k c a r e f u lly at th e p r e p o s itio n s a f t e r th e gaps to h e lp you choose th e r ig h t w o r d .a va cc in a te d b diagnosed c s c re e n e d d a d m in is te re d e d is c h a rg e d1 In p o o r c o u n trie s p a tie n ts are s o m e t im e s ___________________fr o m h o s p ita l b e foreth e y a re f u lly cu re d .2 If a ll w o m e n ove r th e age of 50 a r e__________________f o r b re a s t ca n cer, m any livescan be saved.3 The p a tie n t w a s ___________________w ith h e a rt disease.U A ll c h ild r e n s h o u ld b e ___________________a g a in s t in fe c tio u s d iseases such asm e a s le s .5 The d o c t o r_a d ru g to th e p a tie n t to help h im sleep.Lnr2xl125j En 5 Qu6sRUnit 2Exam practice: Reading - answering T r u e /F a ls e / Not given questions - com pleting sentencesQUESTIONS 1 - 4Do the sta te m e n ts 7-4 be lo w agree w ith the in fo rm a tio n given in the fo llo w in g text? Write:TRUE FALSE NOT GIVENi f the text co n firm s the sta te m e n ti f the text c o n firm s the opposite o f the sta te m e n ti f it is im possible to know fro m the textT ip : Look f o r syn o nym s f o r key te rm s .S c ie n tis ts fr o m th e UK and USA have r e c e n tly re p o rte d th a t o ve r th e la s t 30 y e a rs th e in c id e n c e of Type 2 d ia b e te s has m o re th a n d o ubled. They e s tim a te th a t n e a rly 350 m illio n a d u lts w o rld w id e now have th e disease. In every c o u n try s tu d ie d , ra te s of d ia b e te s had e it h e r re m a in e d the sam e o r in c re a s e d . The ris e has been p a r tic u la r ly a cu te in th e P acific Is la n d s w ith up to th ir t y p e r c e n t of w o m e n in som e a re as s u ffe rin g fr o m th e c o n d itio n .Type 2 d ia b e te s is a c h ro n ic p ro g re s s iv e c o n d itio n w h ic h o c c u rs w he n th e r e is too m u ch g lu c o s e in th e blood, e it h e r because th e pa ncre a s does not p ro d u c e enough in s u lin o r because c e lls have becom e r e s is ta n t to in s u lin . C o m p lic a tio n s r e s u ltin g fr o m d ia b e te s in c lu d e dam age to kidneys, b lin d n e s s , h e a rt disease and s tro k e s .The c o n d itio n is a s s o cia te d w ith o b esity; h o w ever, n e a rly t h r e e - q u a r te r s of th e rise has been a ttr ib u te d to lo n g e r life s p a n s and b e tte r d ia g n o sis. Having a c lose re la tiv e w ith th e disease is also a r is k fa c to r.Type 2 d ia b e te s has also becom e a m a jo r b u rde n on h e a lth care s y s te m s a ro un d th e w o r ld . E xp e nd itu re on tre a tin g the co n d itio n is p ro je cte d to rise to o ver £30 b illio n a n n u a lly w ith in the next th re e years. However, a re c e n t study has show n th a t if th e co n d itio n is diagnosed w ith in fo u r ye ars of onset, it can be re ve rse d by fo llo w in g a lo w - c a lo r ie d iet. L im itin g food in ta k e to 600 c a lo rie s p e r day f o r e ig h t w e e k s w as shown to have a la s tin g e ffe c t on th e m a jo rity of s u b je c ts w ho to o k p a rt in th e tr ia l. F or many, Type 2 dia b e te s can be cured - and it need not cost th e e a rth .1 M ore th a n tw ic e as m any a d u lts have Type 2 d ia b e te s as did t h ir t y y e a rs ago.2 N e a rly a th ir d of people in th e P acific Is la n d s have d iabetes.3 Type 2 d ia b e te s is a lo n g - te r m illn e s s w h ic h can be caused by in s u ffic ie n t in s u lin p ro d u c tio n .4 The in c re a s e in Type 2 d ia b e te s is p a r tly due to g r e a t e r life expectancy.QUESTIONS 5 - 7Complete the sentences 5 - 7 using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS fro m the passage above.5 T re a tin g d ia b e te s places a s ig n ific a n t on h e a lth care budgets.6 If a p e rson _7 M ost peoplew ith d ia b e te s e a rly , he o r she can be cu re d._ in the lo w - c a lo r ie d ie t s tu d y m ade a good recovery.bT21ta g G3 EducationN a m in g a c a d e m ic s u b je c ts I V e rb s , n o u n s an d a d je c tiv e s a s s o c ia te d w it h a c a d e m ic s tu d y I C h o o s in g th e c o r r e c t p a r t o f s p e e c hVocabularyAcademic subjects:• arch aeology also archeologyUNCOUNTABLE NOUN Archaeology is the s tu d y of th e s o c ie tie s and peoples of th e past by e x a m in in g the re m a in s of t h e ir b u ild in g s , to o ls , and o th e r o bjects. ■ an archaeology p ro fe s s o r a t Florida State University• astro nom yUNCOUNTABLE NOUN A stron om y is the s c ie n tific s tu d y of th e s ta rs , p la n e ts , and o th e r n a tu r a l o b je c ts in space. ■ a 10-day a stro n o m y m ission• economicsUNCOUNTABLE NOUN Economics is the s tu d y of th e w ay in w h ic h m oney, in d u s try , and tra d e a re o rg a n iz e d in a society.■ He g ained a f ir s t class Honours degree in economics. ■ having p re vio u sly s tu d ied econom ics and fine a r t• geologyUNCOUNTABLE NOUN Geology is th e s tu d y of th e E a r th ’s s tr u c tu r e , s u rfa c e , and o rig in s . ■ He was visiting p ro fe s s o r o f geology a t the U niversity o f Jordan.• linguisticsUNCOUNTABLE NOUN Linguistics is th e s tu d y of th e w ay in w h ic h lan g u a g e w o rk s .■ M odern lin g u is tic s em erged as a d is tin c t fie ld in the n ineteenth century.• psychologyUNCOUNTABLE NOUN Psychology is th e s c ie n tific s tu d y of th e h u m an m in d and th e re a s o n s f o r p e o p le 's b e h a v io u r. ■ P ro fe sso r o f Psychology a t B edford College ■ research in educational psychology• sociologyUNCOUNTABLE NOUN Sociology is the s tu d y of s o c ie ty o r of th e w ay s o c ie ty is o rg a n iz e d . ■ a sociology p ro fe s s o r a t the U nive rsity o f N o rth Carolina ■ a tre a tise on the sociology o f re lig io nAcademic activities:• analyse (analyses, analysing, analysed)VERB If you analyse s o m e th in g , you c o n s id e r it c a r e fu lly o r use s ta tis tic a l m e th o d s in o r d e r to f u lly u n d e rs ta n d it. [US analyze]■ M cCarthy was asked to analyse the data fro m the fir s t phase o f tria ls o f the vaccine.■ [+ what] This book teaches you how to analyse what is causing the stress in y o u r life.• claim (claim s, claim in g, claim ed)VERB If you say th a t som eone claims that s o m e th in g is tru e , you m ean they say th a t it is tr u e but you are not s u re w h e th e r o r not they are te llin g the tr u th . ■ [+ that] He claim ed that it was a ll a conspiracy against him. ■ [+ to -in f]A man claim ing to be a jo u rn a lis t threatened to reveal details about h e r private life. ■ He claims a 70 to 80 p e r cent success rate.• define (defines, defining, defined)VERB If you defin e a w o rd o r e x p re s s io n , you e x p la in its m e a n in g , fo r e x a m p le in a d ic tio n a ry . ■ [+ as] C ollins English D ictio n a ry defines a w o rk a h o lic as 'a p erson obsessively addicted to w ork'.• ev alu a te (evalu ates, evaluating , evaluated)VERB If you ev alu a te s o m e th in g o r s o m e on e , you c o n s id e r th e m in o r d e r to m a ke a ju d g m e n t a b o u t th e m , f o r e xa m p le a b o u t how good o r bad th e y a re . ■ They w illBonfvtyfLx qo L +i]pjUnit 3a Ep H u HGcA Ec upt Ec G A cspHGH uo GbtPstuG uvG needs o f the individual situation. ■ The m a rke t situ a tion is d iffic u lt to evaluate. ■ [+ how] we evaluate how w e ll we do som ething• investigate (investigates, investigating, investigated)VERB If you in v e s tig a te s o m e th in g , you s tu d y o r e x a m in e it c a r e fu lly to fin d out th e t r u th a b ou t it. ■ Research in Oxford is now investigating a possible lin k between e n dom etriosis and the im m une system.■ [+ how] Police are s t i l l investigating how the accident happened.Nouns associated with research:• evidenceUNCOUNTABLE NOUN Evidence is anything th a t you see, experience, read, o r are told th a t causes you to believe th a t so m e th in g is tru eo r has re a lly happened. ■ [+ of/for] a re p ort on the scientific evidence fo r global warm ing■ [+ that] There is a lot o f evidence that stress is p a rtly responsible fo r disease. ■ [+ to - in f] To date there is no evidence to support this theory.• hypothesis (hypotheses)NOUN A hypothesis is an idea w h ic h is su g ge sted as a p o s s ib le e x p la n a tio n f o r a p a r tic u la r s itu a tio n o r co n d itio n , but w h ic h has not yet been proved to be c o rre c t. [FORMAL] ■ Work w ill now begin to te s t the hypothesis in rats. ■ D iffe re n t hypotheses have been p u t fo rw a rd to explain why these foods are m ore lik e ly to cause p roblem s.• th e o ry (theories)NOUN A th e o ry is a fo r m a l idea o r set of ideas th a t is inte nd e d to exp la in s o m e th in g .■ [+ of] Einstein fo rm u la te d the Theory o f R elativity in 1905.Practice exercisesExam tip: W o rd s f o r a c a de m ic s u b je c ts can have m any d iffe r e n t e n din g s, but th e se are c o m m o n .- ic s : s ta tis tic s- lo g y : biology- y : philosophyLe arn to re co gn ize these.C o m p le te w o r d s 1 - 7 b e lo w w ith th e e n d in g - ic s , - lo g y , o r - y to fo r m th e na m es of s u b je c ts . Then m a tc h th e m to th e to p ic s o f s tu d y a - g .1a rch ae o ath e h u m an m ind2a s trn n n m bpeople of th e past3e ro n n m cs o cie tyUgeodm oney, in d u s try and tra d e5lin g u is t eth e Earth6p s y c h o............................f how lan g u a ge w o rk s7 s o c io.......gs ta r s and p la n e tsExam tip: W o rd s f o r n a m in g people by t h e ir o c c u p a tio n s o fte n end in -er.E xa m p le s: te a c h e r/fa rm e r/m in e r W o rd s f o r n a m in g people w ho s tu d y a c a de m ic s u b je c ts f o r a livin g u s u a lly end in - is t.E xa m p le s: b io lo gist/p hysicist L e arn to re co gn ize these.u3lr2tVni g 02 ^ssTm t^ m p s c c m p t - s c ( T W s c h p h ( m w np T E H ym p tT ho( t^ m P m s P um - ^ s T tE ( A t^ m w tsp s w P um tm T m o tm o p m T l gN ql ] oJJJJJJJJJJJ ht t^m SsAhu 9 HTmcUhtscA ^hT (nTpsUmcm( h om- wsso no s E c T s uh c TATtmw q2 She w an ted to u n d e rs ta n d w hy people feel, th in k , and behave in c e rta in ways, so shedecided to do a d e gree i n___________3 ___________is th e s tu d y of la n g u a g e in g e n e ra l, not any p a r t ic u la r lan g u a g e such asF re n ch o r M a n d a rin .U The g o v e r n m e n t’s p re d ic tio n s f o r e c o n o m ic g ro w th and in fla tio n w e re not e n d o rse d by le a d in g___________5 S tu d e n ts fr o m th e d e p a r tm e n t o f___________s p e n t th e w e e k e n d s tu d y in g ro c kf o r m a tio n s o ff th e coast of S co tla n d .6 G ra d u ate s i n ___________o fte n ta k e jo b s w h ic h involve a n a ly s in g data and f o r m u la t in gs o c ia l policy.7 ___________ w ere called in to investigate the Iron Age to o ls discovered on the building site.j E xam t ip : When w r it in g in the IELTS exam you need to use not only th e rig h t w o rd s but j a lso th e rig h t p a rts of speech, f o r e x a m p le :Thompson and h e r colleagues analyse IverbJ the sam ples using the antibody test.The main re s u lts o f the analysis [noun] are su m m a rize d below. i I have an analytical Iadjective] approach to every survey.I When you le a rn a new w o rd , le a rn its asso cia te d p a rts of speech.3 The w o rd s in th e ta b le a re c o m m o n ly lin k e d to a c a d e m ic s tu d y . Use y o u r d ic tio n a r y to c o m p le te th e ta b le .noun adjectivec la im xd e fin itio n xe valuatein v e s tig a tio nXevidenceh yp o th e sisth e o r e t ic a l4 Choose th e c o r r e c t p a r t o f speech fr o m th e w o r d s in ita lic s f o r s e n te n c e s 1 -6 .1 When giving a p re s e n ta tio n , it is im p o r ta n t to d e fine /de fin ition key te rm s .2 An e ffe c tiv e essay is not j u s t d e s c rip tiv e but also evaluation/evaluative.3 It is im p o r ta n t to investigate/investigation th e causes of in e q u a lity .U It is now evidence/evident th a t s tre s s c o n trib u te s to disease.5 M ost s c ie n tific re s e a rc h begins w ith a hypothesize/hypothesis.6 There is no theory/theoretical m o d e l to explain the im pa ct of in fla tio n on econom ic grow th. verbLnr2xl125j En5 Qu6sRUnit 3r 2^ssTm - s c ( T W c s w t^ m th H um no f b m cp nT m d ts p s w P um tm t^ m T m o tm o p m T l gr ql 0o h p h (m w np ( nT p E T T ns o T 4 nt nT nw P s c th o t t sJJJJJJJJJJJJh c1 E w m o tT W s c t ^ m nc T tc m o 1 t^ Tho( - mh Go m TTm Tqa 0t - sEu( Hm ( nWWnp E ut ts (mTn1o h T p nm o tnWnp m b P m cnw m o t ts tmTt t ^ mJJJJJJJJJJJJt^ h t w E utnP umtnw m (nw moTnsoT mbnTtqd es (htm t^ m cm nT o sJJJJJJJJJJJJts T E P P s ct t^ nT t^ m s cAqO ] W t m c um o 1 t ^ AJJJJJJJJJJJJ4 t^mA - m cm T t n u u E o hH um ts n( m o tnWA t^ m T s E cp m sW t^ m umhGqr e ^ m cm nT os 1 m o m ch u h 1 cm m w m o t so h T t h o ( h c (JJJJJJJJJJJJsW t^ m tm c w Y no t m uun1 m o p m F qExam practice: W riting Task 2B e lo w is a s tu d e n t’s a n s w e r to an IELTS W ritin g T a sk 2, in w h ic h c a n d id a te s a re re q u ire d to w r it e a 250 w o rd essay on a given to p ic. C o m p le te th e essay w ith w o rd s fr o m th e u n it. T h e re m ay be m o re th a n one c o r r e c t a n s w e r. H in t: m ake s u re you choose th e c o r r e c t p a rt of speech.WRITING TASK 2W r ite a b o u t th e f o llo w in g to p ic :Is there any value in studying academ ic subjects th a t are not 'u se fu l' in te rm s o f generating w ealth fo r the country?Give re a s o n s f o r y o u r a n s w e r and in c lu d e any r e le v a n t e x a m p le s f r o m y o u r o w n k n o w le d g e o r e x p e rie n c e .W r ite a t le a s t 250 w o rd s .Many people these days (1 )__________that a u s e fu l education is one th a t p repares graduates fo roccupations th a t create w ealth. However, when we (2 )__________the usefulness of an academ icsubject we should th in k c a re fu lly about how we (3 )__________the te r m ‘u s e fu l’ . In th is essay, I argueth a t many academ ic subjects th a t do not d ire c tly g enerate g re at w ea lth can s t ill be very useful.Some s u b je c ts can be u s e fu l because they c re a te k n o w le d g e th a t can be ap plied in re la te d fie ld s .(4 ) , f o r exam ple, s tu d y th e way language w o rk s . T h e ir ( 5 )__________can be used toc re a te m o re e ffe c tiv e m e th o d s of language te a c h in g . Im proved in te r n a tio n a l c o m m u n ic a tio n canr e s u lt in b e tte r tra d in g re la tio n s , w h ic h can in tu r n g e n e ra te w e a lth . ( 6 )__________( 7 )__________the lives of people in th e past th ro u g h t h e ir a rtifa c ts . Many of th e se w i l l be displayed in m u s e u m s , w h ic h can a ttr a c t to u r is ts w ho g e n e ra te incom e f o r h o te lie rs , re s ta u ra n ts and so on.Many a c a d e m ic s u b je c ts can also be ‘ u s e fu l’ in t e r m s of c o n tr ib u tin g to p e o p le ’s q u a lity oflife . Some people p u rs u e hobb ie s in fie ld s such as ( 8 )__________in o r d e r to have a b e tte ru n d e rs ta n d in g of th e p la n e t w e live on. O the rs w ith an in t e r e s t in s ta r s and p la n e ts m ay becom ea m a te u r ( 9 )__________C u rio s ity is an im p o r ta n t h u m a n tr a it , and m any a c a de m ic s u b je c tsa llo w people to s a tis fy th is need.In s h o rt, th e re is lit t l e (1 0 )__________th a t s im p ly e d u c a tin g people to be e ffic ie n t w o r k e r sm a ke s th e m h a p p ie r o r r ic h e r in th e b ro a d e r sense. H um an c u r io s ity and th e u n p re d ic ta b le n a tu re of k n o w le d g e c re a tio n mean th a t a v a rie ty of a c a d e m ic d is c ip lin e s s h o u ld be va lu e d .N ow c o m p le te th e e ssay in y o u r ow n w o rd s .u3lr2tVni g Hi m c H T ho ( o s E o T h T T s p nh tm ( - nt ^ t c h U m u h o ( h ( U m o t E c m 0 3 m ttno 1 - s c ( T t c m T T c n 1 ^ t 0 2 ^ s s T no 1 U s p h H E uh c A ts m b P c m T T A s E c T m u W P c m p nT m uAVocabularyVerbs associated with tra v e l and adventure:• accompany (accompanies, accompanying, accompanied)VERB If you accompany som e on e , you go s o m e w h e re w ith th e m . [FORMAL] ■ Ken agreed to accom pany me on a trip to Africa.■ The P rim e M inister, accom panied by the governor, led the P resident up to the house.• e n c o u n ter (encoun ters, encountering, encoun tered)VERB If you encounter p ro b le m s o r d iffic u ltie s , you experience them . ■ Everyday o f o u r lives we encounter stresses o f one kind o r another. • Environmental problem s they found in Poland were among the w orst they encountered.• overcom e (overcomes, overcoming, overcam e)VERB If you overcom e a p ro b le m o r a fe e lin g , you s u c c e s s fu lly d e al w ith it and c o n tr o l it. ■ M o lly had fo ught and overcome h e r fe a r o f flying. ■ One way o f helping ch ild re n to overcome shyness is to boost th e ir se lf-confidence.• resch ed u le (reschedu les, rescheduling, rescheduled)VERB If so m e o n e reschedu les an event, th e y change th e tim e at w h ic h it is supposed to happen. ■ Since I ' l l be away, I'd lik e to reschedule the m eeting. ■ [+ fo r] They've re sch ed u led the opening fo r F e b ru ary 14th.• seek (seeks, seeking, sought)VERB If you se ek s o m e th in g , you t r y to fin d it o r o b ta in it. [FORMAL] ■ F o u r people who so u gh t refuge in the Italia n embassy have le ft voluntarily. ■ [+ fo r] Candidates are u rg e n tlyso u gh t fo r the p o st o f Conservative P arty chairm an. • Always seek p ro fe ssio n a l legal advice before e n te rin g into any agreem ent.■ [+ fro m] The couple have so u gh t help from m a rria g e guidance counsellors.• v e n tu re (ven tu res, v e n tu rin g , v en tu red )VERB If you v e n tu re s o m e w h e re , you go s o m e w h e re th a t m ig h t be d a ng e ro us. [LITERARY] ■ People are a fra id to venture out fo r fe a r o f s n ip e r attacks.Nouns associated with tra v e l and adventure:• challen g e (challenges)NOUN A challen ge is s o m e th in g new and d if fic u lt w h ic h re q u ire s g re a t e ffo r t and d e te rm in a tio n . ■ I like a big challenge and they d o n ’t come m uch b ig g e r than this. ■ The new g o v e rn m e n t’s fir s t challenge is the economy.• destination (destinations)NOUN The destination of som eone o r so m e th in g is the place to w hich they are going o r being sent. ■ Spain is s till o ur m ost popular holiday destination. ■ Only h a lf o f the emergency supplies have reached th e ir destination.• itin e ra r y (itin e ra rie s )NOUN An itin e ra ry is a plan of a jo u rn e y , in c lu d in g th e ro u te and th e pla ce s th a t you w i l l v is it. ■ The next place on o u r itin e r a r y was S ilis tra .• jo u rn e y (journeys)NOUN When you m ake a journey, you tra v e l fr o m one place to a n o th e r. ■ [ + to ] There is an express service from Paris which com pletes the jo u rn e y to Bordeaux in u n de r 4 hours.BonfvtyfLx qoL +i]pjAdjectives to describe experiences:• d re a ryADJECTIVE If you d e s c rib e s o m e th in g as d reary, you mean th a t it is d u ll and d e p re s s in g . ■ a d re a ry lit t le town in the M idw est• intenseADJECTIVE Intense is used to d e scrib e s o m e th in g th a t is v e ry g re a t o r e x tre m e in s tre n g th o r degree. ■ He was sw eating from the intense heat. ■ His threats become more intense, agitated, and frequent.• pivotalADJECTIVE A pivotal ro le , point, o r fig u re in s o m e th in g is one th a t is v e ry im p o r ta n t and a ffe c ts th e succe ss of th a t th in g . ■ The Courto f Appeal has a pivotal role in the English legal system. ■ The elections may prove to be p ivo tal in Colombia's p o litic a l history.• profoundADJECTIVE You use profound to e m p h a s iz e t h a t s o m e th in g is v e ry g re a t o r in te n s e .■ discoveries which had a p ro fo u n d e ffe c t on m any areas o f m edicine ■ The o v e rw h e lm in g fe e lin g is j u s t deep, p ro fo u n d shock and anger. ■ A nna's p a tr io tis m was profound.• v a lu ab leADJECTIVE If you d e s c rib e s o m e th in g o r so m e on e as valuab le, you mean th a t th e y are v e ry u s e fu l and h e lp fu l. ■ Many o f o u r teachers also have valuable academic lin ks w ith Heidelberg University. • The experience was very valuable.Practice exercisesL is te n to s p e a k e rs 1 -6 d e s c rib in g t h e i r a d v e n tu re s . In d ic a te w h ic h o f th e v e rb s a - g each s p e a k e r uses by w r it in g a l e t t e r in th e sp a ces b e lo w :aa cco m pa n yS p e a k e r 1 .............bre s c h e d u leS p e a k e r 2......cv e n tu reS p e a k e r 3de n c o u n te rS p e a k e r Leove rcom eS p e a k e r FifseekS p e a k e r 6 ................Exam tip: You can im p ro v e y o u r m a rk in th e IELTS S peaking exam if you le a rn to p ro n o u n c e w o rd s c o rre c tly .F or m u lt i- s y lla b le w o rd s it is im p o r ta n t to get th e s tre s s p a tte rn rig h t.When you le a rn a new w o rd , le a rn w h ic h s y lla b le is p ro n o u n ced m o s t s tro n g ly .L is te n a g ain to s p e a k e rs 1 -6 in E x e rc is e 1. U n d e r lin e th e s tre s s e d s y lla b le of each key v e rb a - f . P ra c tis e saying th e w o r d s o u t lou d .y3STitl5Tf bhw t nP . 0o t^ m 0fVev v PmhGno1 mbhw AsE omm( ts T ^ s - t^ h t AsE ^hUm h Hcsh( U s p h H E uh cA q0o f o 1 unT^ t^ m c m h cm w hoA - s c( T t^ h t ^hUm t^ m Thw m 1 m o m ch u w m h o no 1 x ^ s - mUmc4 t^ m A w hA ^hUm T E H tuA ( nW Wm c m o t ( m Wno ntns o T qf bh w P um . challenge and obstacle can both r e fe r to a d iffic u lty . H ow ever, if you use the w o rd challenge, you im p ly th a t you m a y be a b le to o v e rc o m e th e d iffic u lty . If you use obstacle, you im p ly th a t th e d iffic u lty is h a r d e r to o ve rcom e .L e arn to d is tin g u is h th e s e s u b tle d iffe re n c e s of m e a n in g to e x p re s s y o u r s e lf p re c is e ly .L o o k a t th e s e p a ir s o f w o r d s w it h s i m i l a r m e a n in g s . C o m p le te th e s e n te n c e p a ir s 1 -8 w it h w o r d s fr o m th e ta b le .itin e r a r yjo u rn e ye n c o u n te r m e e tp iv o ta l s ig n ific a n tseek lo o k f o rinte nse p ro fo u n dd re a ry d u llva lu a b le p ric e le s sd e s tin a tio n g o a l1 a You can use th e e x p r e s s io n________if you a re try in g to fin d s o m e th in g .b ________is a m o re f o r m a l w o rd th a t you can use if you a re tr y in g to fin d s o m e th in gth a t is q u ite im p o r ta n t, a jo b f o r e xa m ple .2 a If s o m e th in g i s________, it is b o rin g and d e p re s s in g .b If s o m e th in g i s________, it is not in te r e s tin g o r e x c itin g .3 a Y o u r________is th e p lace th a t you hope to reach.b Y o u r________is s o m e th in g th a t you hope to achieve.U a If y o u________so m e on e , you m ay com e a c ro s s th e m u n e x p e c te d ly o r because youhave a rra n g e d to get to g e th e r.b If y o u________som e on e , you com e a c ro s s th e m , u s u a lly u n ex p e c te d ly .5 a W hen you m a ke a________, you tr a v e l fr o m one p lace to a n o th e r.b A n________is th e plan you m a ke b e fo re you tra v e l.6 a If som ething i s________, it is very m e a nin g fu l and may affect the way you th in k and feel.b If s o m e th in g i s________, it is e x tre m e in s tr e n g th o r d egree.7 a A________ro le , p o in t o r fig u r e in s o m e th in g is one th a t is im p o r ta n t.b A_________ro le , p o in t o r fig u re in s o m e th in g is one th a t is ve ry im p o rta n t anda ffe c ts th e su cce ss of th a t th in g .8 a If s o m e th in g i s_________ it is v e ry u s e fu l a n d / o r w o r t h a lo t of m oney.b If s o m e th in g i s________, it is e x tr e m e ly u s e fu l a n d /o r w o r t h a g re a t d e a l of m oney.Lnr2xl125j En5 Qu6sRUnit 4d Choose w o r d s f r o m th e ta b le o f p a irs in E x e rc is e 2 to c o m p le te th e s e n te n c e s 1 -8 .1 A c c o rd in g to o u r________we s h o uld be in Z a n z ib a r by 8.30 Tuesday evening.2 Many people tr a v e l to th e t r o p i c s ,________- in g sun and a d v e n tu re .3 T h e i r_______th ro u g h A fric a w as one th a t th e y had been lo o k in g fo rw a rd to f o r years.4 If you tr a v e l w it h o u t m a k in g re s e rv a tio n s , you are lik e ly t o________p ro b le m s .5 O ur t r ip to th e coast w as r a t h e r________as it w as o v e rc a s t and th e beaches w e re d irty .6 R etrie vin g m y s to le n p a s s p o rt w as a________m o m e n t - a f te r th a t, e v e ry th in g w e n ts m o o th ly .7 A fte r e x p lo rin g the caves, w e ’ re going t o________my cousin and his w ife at the lo c a l bar.8 Seeing th e po verty in th a t p a rt of th e w o rd w as a v e r y________e x p e rie n c e - it m ademe sad and th o u g h tfu l.Exam practice: Speaking Part 2In P a rt 2 of th e IELTS S peaking exam you have to speak f o r one to tw o m in u te s a b ou t a to p ic you are given. You w i l l receive a ta s k card lik e th e one below . You have one m in u te to p re p a re w h a t to say and to m a ke a fe w w r it t e n n o tes if you w is h .O F o r t h is p ra c tic e e x e rc is e , lis t e n to th e m o d e l a n s w e r and w r it e d o w n seven ta r g e t w o r d s fr o m05 U n it 4 t h a t th e s p e a k e r uses.D escrib e an a d v e n tu re th a t you have had, e ith e r at hom e o r a broad.You s h o u ld say:w h a t you did w h y you did it how you f e lt a b o u t it and e xp la in w h a t you le a rn e d fr o m th e exp erie n ce.W hen you a re re a d y, t r y th e e x e rc is e y o u r s e lf. B e fo re you s p e a k , n o te d o w n f o u r to e ig h t key w o rd s .Tip: M ake s u re you have s tu d ie d th e d e fin itio n s and s a m p le s e n te n c e s f o r y o u r key w o rd s c a re fu lly .y3STitl5T C g5 GadgetsD e s c r ib in g d im e n s io n s , a c t io n s a nd p r o c e s s e s I R e c o g n iz in g w o r d s w it h s e v e r a l m e a n in g s I U s in g c o llo c a t io n s an d c o n t e x t to id e n t i f y th e r i g h t m e a n in gVocabularyNouns to describe dimensions:• a n g le (angles)NOUN An a ngle is th e d iffe re n c e in d ire c tio n b e tw ee n tw o lin e s o r s u rfa c e s . A n g le s a re m e a s u re d in d e gre e s. ■ The boat is now teaning a t a 30 degree angle.• circ u m fere n c eUNCOUNTABLE NOUN The c irc u m fere n c e of a c irc le , place, o r ro u nd o b je c t is the d is ta n c e a ro u n d its edge. ■ a s c ie n tis t c a lc u la tin g the E arth's circum ference■ The is la n d is 3.5 k m in circum ference.• d ia m e te r (d iam e te rs )NOUN The d ia m e te r of a ro u n d o b je c t is the le n g th of a s t r a ig h t lin e th a t can be d ra w n a c ro s s it, passing th r o u g h th e m id d le of it.■ [+ of] a tube less than a fifth o f the d ia m e te r o f a hum an h a ir ■ a length o f 2 2 -m m d ia m e te r s te e l pipe• h e ig h t (h eig h ts)NOUN The height of a person o r th in g is t h e ir size o r le n g th fr o m th e b o tto m to the top. ■ H e r w eight is about n o rm a l fo r h e r height. ■ I am 5 ’6 " in height. ■ [+ of] The tree can g ro w to a h e ight o f 20ft. ■ He was a man o f m edium height.• length (lengths)NOUN The length of s o m e th in g is the a m o u n t th a t it m e a s u re s fr o m one end to th e o th e r a long th e lo n g e s t side. ■ It is about a m e tre in le n g th.■ [+ of] the length o f the fie ld■ [+ of] The plane had a wing span o f 3 4 ft and a length o f 22ft.• radius (rad ii)NOUN The radius a ro u n d a p a r t ic u la r p o in t is th e d is ta n c e fr o m it in any d ire c tio n .■ [+ around] N ig e l has searched f o r w ork in a te n -m ile ra d iu s aro un d his home.■ [+ of] w ithin a fifty - m ile ra d iu s o f the town■ F ragm ents o f tw is te d m e ta l were sca tte re d across a wide radius.• volu m e (volumes)NOUN The vo lu m e of s o m e th in g is the a m o u n t of it th a t th e re is. ■ [+ of] S e n io r o ffic ia ls w ill be discussing how the volume o f sales m ig h t be reduced. ■ [+ of] the s h e e r volum e o f tra ffic and accidents• w id th (widths)NOUN The w id th of s o m e th in g is th e d is ta n c e it m e a s u r e s fr o m one s id e o r edge to th e o th e r . ■ [+ of] M easure the f u l l w id th o f the window. ■ The ro a d was re d u c e d to 18ft in w id th by adding p a rk in g bays. ■ Saddles are m ade in a wide ra n ge o f d if fe r e n t w idths.Actions:• adjust (adjusts, adjusting, adjusted)VERB W hen you adjust to a new s itu a tio n , you get used to it by ch a ng in g y o u r b e h a v io u r o r y o u r ideas. ■ [+ to] We are p re p a rin g o u r fig h te rs to a d ju st them selves to civil society. ■ [+ to] I fe lt I had a d justed to the idea o f being a m o th e r very well.• convey (conveys, conveying, conveyed) VERB To convey in fo r m a tio n o r fe e lin g s m e a ns to cause th e m to be kno w n o r u n d e rs to o d by som e on e . ■ S em iological analysis sees a sign as any c u ltu ra l sym bol which conveys a meaning. ■ In every one o f h e r p ic tu re s she conveys a sense o f immediacy.■ He also conveyed his views and the views o f the bureaucracy.BonfvtyfLx qo L +i]pjU n its• launch (launches, launching, launched)VERB If a co m p an y launches a new p ro d u c t, it m a ke s it a v a ila b le to the p u blic. ■ Crabtree& Evelyn has j u s t launched a new ja m , W orcesterberry Preserve. ■ M arks & Spencer re c e n tly h ire d m odel Linda Evangelista to launch its new range.• reinforce (reinforces, reinforcing, reinforced)VERB If som ething reinforces a feeling, situation, o r process, it makes it s tro n g e r o r m ore intense. ■ A stronger European Parliament would, they fear, only reinforce the power of the larger countries. ■ This sense of privilege tends to be reinforced by the outside world.• secu re (secures, securing, secured)VERB If you secu re s o m e th in g th a t you w a n t o r need, you o b ta in it, o fte n a fte r a lo t of e ffo r t. [FORMAL] ■ Federal leaders continued th e ir e ffo rts to secure a ceasefire. ■ G raham ’s achievem ents helped secure him the job.• suspend (suspends, suspending, suspended)VERB If you suspend s o m e th in g , you delay it o r stop it fr o m h a ppening f o r a w h ile o r u n t il a de cisio n is m ade ab ou t it. ■ The union suspended s trik e action this week. ■ [+ u n til]A U.N. o ffic ia l s aid aid p ro gra m s w ill be suspended u n til there's adequate p ro te ction fo r r e lie f convoys.Practice exercisesM atch th e w o r d s a - h to p ic tu r e s 1 -8 .a a n glec d ia m e te re le n g thgv o lu m eb c irc u m fe re n c ed h e ig h tf ra d iu shw id thk23-Tto C Ga L is te n to th e d e s c r ip tio n o f th e p in h o le c a m e ra and c o m p le te th e d ia g ra m by w r it in g th e c o r r e c t d im e n s io n s in gaps 1 -4 .i Exam tip: M any w o rd s in E n g lish have m o re th a n one m e a n in g .I You need to pay a tte n tio n to th e c o n te x t so th a t you in t e r p r e t w o r d s c o rre c tly , j C o llo c a tio n s (w ord s th a t c o m m o n ly go to g e th e r) can help you re c o g n iz e w h ic h m e a nin g j of a w o rd is in te n d e d in th a t co n te x t.! E xa m p le : I f you c o n v e y g o o d s fro m one place to a n o th e r you c a rry o r tra n s p o rt them. I f you c o n v e y a m e s s a g e you m ake it understood.I L e arn to re c o g n iz e c o llo c a tio n s and th e m u lt ip le m e a n in g s of w o rd s .3 Use th e w o r d s f r o m th e box to c o m p le te s e n te n c e p a ir s 1 -5 .a d ju s t la u n c h r e in fo rc e s e c u re su spend1 a We had t o____________ th e m e e tin g because th e f ir e a la rm w e n t o ff unexp e cte d ly.b If y o u ____________ the lig h t d ir e c tly above th e obje ct, you w i l l see i t ’s shape m o rec le a rly .2 aWhen we noticed the bulge in the w a ll, we had to call in the h u ild e rs tnbHe pro du ce d som e good data to .his a rg u m e n t.3 aYou’ ll have tn th a t ca m e ra len s tn get a r l e a r im agebIt to o k me s e v e ra l ye a rs toto th e c lim a te in N a iro b i.UaFew c o u n trie s have th e fa c ilitie s toa ro c k e t into space.bThe c o m p an y a re hoping toth e new phone in tim e f o r C h ris tm a s .5 aIn o r d e r to buy a house, you have toa Inan.bif you w a n t th e hnnkcase to s ta y in place, you sh o u ld it to th e w a ll.Lnr2xl125j En 5 Qu6sR

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